United Nations blue helmets to Jerusalem
Blue Helmets to Jerusalem - book title
by David A. Reed             COMPLETE BOOK ONLINE
Chapter 17
Nations United and Resolved

Zechariah's prophecy that "all the nations of the earth will be gathered against" Jerusalem (Zech. 12:3 NASB) parallels similar predictions recorded by Joel and the apostle John, which speak all the nations sending their armies to the region. "For, behold, in those days, and in that time, when I shall bring back the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem, I will gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat; and I will enter into judgment with them there," says the Lord, according to Joel 3:1-2. (The Holy Scriptures, The Jewish Publication Society of America) A demonic summons goes out to "all the kings of the world to call them together for the war of the Great Day of God the Almighty. ... They called the kings together at the place called, in Hebrew, Armageddon." (Revelation 16:14, 16 The Jerusalem Bible; footnote: "Megiddo mountains" — The modern-day government of Israel maintains a prison at Megiddo, filled with Palestinians held as terrorists.)

But Bible prophecy is not the only reason to expect a united international military force to converge on Jerusalem. There is also a modern political paper trail indicating that the nations of the world have already begun laying a legal foundation to justify such a move. First, the nations began to unite in the form of the League of Nations and, later, the United Nations organization. Then these organizations began passing resolutions regarding Palestine, Israel and Jerusalem. And, more recently, the nations began granting the United Nations more and more power to act militarily.

The League of Nations made Britain's Palestine Mandate one of its first official acts, and its successor organization, the United Nations, passed Resolution 181 in 1947 calling for the division of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, but also demanding international control over Jerusalem. (See chapter 3 of this book for excerpts of Resolution 181.) Since then, there have been more U.N. resolutions on Israel and Palestine than on any other region of the world. These have consistently called for the Jews to vacate all or part Jerusalem, for Israel not to claim the city as its capital, or for Jerusalem to be internationalized under a governor appointed by the United Nations.

The nations have thus spent decades "uniting" for the prophesied attack and drawing up resolutions to legalize it; now all that remains is the enforcement.

General Assembly resolutions express world opinion but do not carry the threat of enforcement through blue-helmet-wearing U.N. peacekeeping forces. Security Council resolutions can be enforced militarily, but a lone veto cast by the United States has effectively blocked most Security Council measures hostile to Israel. If that veto were to be removed, the way would be open for the nations to have their way in regard to Jerusalem.

The complete text of all U.N. resolutions can be viewed at the United Nations official website at www.UN.org. The General Assembly and Security Council resolutions on Israel and Palestine can by found at the U.N. web site by surfing to the URL http://domino.UN.org/UNISPAL.NSF/ and clicking on links for "Documents by Type" and then "Resolution." The following excerpt from the list featured there as of this writing gives a visual impression of the number of resolutions on Israel, Palestine and Jerusalem passed by various U.N. bodies just in the past few years ("A/RES" indicates a General Assembly resolution and "S/RES" indicates a Security Council resolution):

31/07/2003 S/RES/1496 (2003) UNIFIL - SecCo resolution

18/07/2003 A/RES/57/337 Prevention of armed conflict - GA resolution

26/06/2003 S/RES/1488 (2003) UNDOF - Parties to implement S/RES/338 (1973)/ Mandate renewed - SecCo resolution

18/06/2003 A/RES/57/324 UNDOF/Financing - Resolution

30/05/2003 30th session of Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers - Resolutions on Palestine Affairs

16/04/2003 E/CN.4/RES/2003/8

E/CN.4/2003/L.11/Add.2 Human rights situation/Landmines in southern Lebanon - CHR - Resolution

15/04/2003 E/CN.4/RES/2003/5

E/CN.4/2003/L.11/Add.1 Human rights in the occupied Syrian Golan - CHR - Resolution

15/04/2003 E/CN.4/RES/2003/6

E/CN.4/2003/L.11/Add.1 Human rights situation in the OPT/Jenin - CHR - Resolution

15/04/2003 E/CN.4/RES/2003/7

E/CN.4/2003/L.11/Add.1 Israeli settlements - CHR - Resolution

22/03/2003 E/CN.4/2003/130 Mideast situation/Palestine question - IPU 107th Conference/Resolution - Letter from IPU

03/03/2003 S/2003/254 Mideast situation/Palestine question - League of Arab States Council, 15th session, resolutions 243-245 - Letter from League of Arab States

30/01/2003 S/RES/1461 (2003) UNIFIL mandate - SecCo resolution

31/12/2002 A/AC.183/L.2/Add.24 Palestine question/Mideast situation - Compilation of resolutions and decisions adopted in 2002

20/12/2002 A/RES/57/269 Sovereignty over natural resources in the OT - GA resolution

20/12/2002 A/RES/57/55 Nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Mideast - GA resolution

18/12/2002 A/RES/57/188 Palestinian children - GA resolution

17/12/2002 S/RES/1451 (2002) UNDOF - Parties to implement S/RES/338 (1973)/ Mandate renewed - SecCo resolution

16/12/2002 A/RES/57/147 Assistance to the Palestinian people - GA resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/117 Palestine refugees - Assistance/UNCCP - GA Resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/118 Palestine refugees - UNRWA financing - GA resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/119 Palestine refugees - Displaced persons - GA resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/120 Palestine refugees - Higher education - GA resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/121 Palestine refugees - UNRWA operations - GA resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/122 Palestine refugees - Refugees' properties - GA Resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/123 Palestine refugees - Al Quds University - GA Resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/124 Israeli practices/Work of SpCttee - GA resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/125 Israeli practices/Fourth Geneva Convention - GA resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/126 Israeli practices/Settlements in the OT - GA resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/127 Israeli practices/Human rights - GA resolution

11/12/2002 A/RES/57/128 Israeli practices/Golan - GA resolution

03/12/2002 A/RES/57/107 Palestine question/CEIRPP - GA resolution

03/12/2002 A/RES/57/108 Palestine question/DPR - GA resolution

03/12/2002 A/RES/57/109 Palestine question/DPI - Special information programme - GA resolution

03/12/2002 A/RES/57/110 Palestine question/Peaceful settlement/ Quartet efforts - GA resolution

03/12/2002 A/RES/57/111 Mideast situation/Jerusalem - GA resolution

03/12/2002 A/RES/57/112 Mideast situation/Golan - GA resolution

22/11/2002 A/RES/57/97 Nuclear proliferation in the Middle East - GA resolution

22/11/2002 A/RES/57/99 Security and Cooperation in the Mediterranean region - GA resolution

21/11/2002 A/RES/57/42 Cooperation between UN and OIC - GA resolution

24/09/2002 S/RES/1435 (2002) Mideast situation/Palestine question - Demand for cessation of violence reiterated/Israel to withdraw from Palestinian cities/PA to meet its expressed commitment - SecCo resolution

20/09/2002 GC(46)/RES/16 Application of IAEA safeguards in the Middle East - Resolution

05/08/2002 A/RES/ES-10/11 Situation in the OPT/Jenin and other Palestinian cities - GA emergency session - Resolution

30/07/2002 S/RES/1428 (2002) UNIFIL - SecCo resolution

25/07/2002 E/RES/2002/31

E/2002/INF/2/Add.2 Situation in the OPT/Repercussions of occupation on living conditions - Resolution

24/07/2002 E/RES/2002/25

E/2002/INF/2/Add.2 Palestinian women/Assistance - ECOSOC resolution

27/06/2002 A/RES/56/214 B UNIFIL/Financing - Resolution

27/06/2002 A/RES/56/294 UNDOF/Financing - Resolution

30/05/2002 S/RES/1415 (2002) UNDOF - Parties to implement S/RES/338 (1973)/ Mandate extended - SecCo resolution

24/05/2002 Working conditions in the OPT - ILO resolution

17/05/2002 WHA55.2 Health conditions in the OT - WHO resolution

14/05/2002 WHA55.33-Supplement Health conditions in the OT - Supplement to Director-General report

07/05/2002 A/RES/ES-10/10 Situation in the OPT/Jenin and other Palestinian cities - GA emergency session - Resolution

26/04/2002 E/CN.4/RES/2002/90 Human rights situation in the OPT - CHR - Resolution

26/04/2002 WHA55.33 Health conditions in the OT - Director-General report

19/04/2002 E/CN.4/RES/2002/10 Human rights situation/Landmines in southern Lebanon - CHR - Resolution

19/04/2002 S/RES/1405 (2002) Humanitarian situation in the OPT - Urgency of access of humanitarian organizations emphasized/SecGen's fact-finding team on Jenin - SecCo resolution

15/04/2002 E/CN.4/RES/2002/8 Human rights situation in the OPT/Jenin - CHR - Resolution

14/04/2002 E/CN.4/RES/2003/3

E/CN.4/2003/L.11 Human rights situation in the OPT - CHR - Resolution

12/04/2002 E/CN.4/RES/2002/3 Human rights situation in the OPT - CHR - Resolution

12/04/2002 E/CN.4/RES/2002/6 Human rights in the occupied Syrian Golan - CHR - Resolution

12/04/2002 E/CN.4/RES/2002/7 Israeli settlements - CHR - Resolution

05/04/2002 E/CN.4/RES/2002/1 Human rights situation in the OPT/UNHCHR fact-finding mission - CHR resolution

04/04/2002 S/RES/1403 (2002) Mideast situation/Palestine question/"Quartet" efforts - SecCo resolution

30/03/2002 S/RES/1402 (2002) Mideast situation/Palestine question - Cease-fire, withdrawal of Israeli troops from Palestinian cities called for - SecCo resolution

13/03/2002 PIO 03/2002 Destruction of Gaza International Airport - ICAO Council resolution - ICAO press release

12/03/2002 S/RES/1397 (2002) Mideast situation/Palestine question - Two states vision affirmed - SecCo resolution

28/01/2002 S/RES/1391 (2002) UNIFIL - SecCo resolution

31/12/2001 A/AC.183/L.2/Add.23 Palestine question/Mideast situation - Compilation of resolutions and decisions adopted in 2001

21/12/2001 A/RES/56/204 Sovereignty over natural resources in the OT - GA resolution

21/12/2001 A/RES/56/214 A UNIFIL/Financing - Resolution

20/12/2001 A/RES/ES-10/8 Jerusalem/Settlements/Monitoring mechanism - GA emergency session - Resolution

20/12/2001 A/RES/ES-10/9 Jerusalem/Settlements/Fourth Geneva Convention/Protection - GA emergency session - Resolution

19/12/2001 A/RES/56/142 Right of the Palestinian people to self-determination - GA resolution

14/12/2001 A/RES/56/111 Assistance to the Palestinian people - GA resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/52 Palestine refugees/UNRWA/UNCCP - Assistance - GA Resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/53 Palestine refugees - UNRWA financing - GA resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/54 Palestine refugees - Displaced persons - GA resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/55 Palestine refugees - Higher education - GA resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/56 Palestine refugees - UNRWA operations - GA resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/57 Palestine refugees - Refugees' properties - GA Resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/58 Palestine refugees - Al Quds University - GA Resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/59 Israeli practices in the OPT/Work of SpCttee - GA resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/60 Israeli practices/Fourth Geneva Convention - GA resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/61 Israeli practices/Settlements in the OT - GA resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/62 Israeli practices in the OPT/Human rights - GA resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/62 Israeli practices in the OPT/Human rights - GA resolution

10/12/2001 A/RES/56/63 Israeli practices/Golan - GA resolution

07/12/2001 A/RES/56/47 Cooperation between UN and OIC - GA resolution

03/12/2001 A/RES/56/31 Mideast situation/Jerusalem - GA resolution

03/12/2001 A/RES/56/32 Mideast situation/Golan - GA resolution

03/12/2001 A/RES/56/33 Palestine question/CEIRPP - GA resolution

03/12/2001 A/RES/56/34 Palestine question/DPR - GA resolution

03/12/2001 A/RES/56/35 Palestine question/DPI - GA resolution

03/12/2001 A/RES/56/36 Palestine question/Peaceful settlement - GA resolution

29/11/2001 A/RES/56/21 Nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Mideast - GA resolution

29/11/2001 A/RES/56/27 Nuclear proliferation in the Middle East - GA resolution

29/11/2001 A/RES/56/29 Security and Cooperation in the Mediterranean region - GA resolution

27/11/2001 S/RES/1381 (2001) UNDOF - Parties to implement S/RES/338 (1973)/Mandate extended - SecCo resolution

20/11/2001 S/RES/1379 (2001) Children and armed conflict - SecCo resolution

28/09/2001 S/RES/1373 (2001) Measures to eliminate international terrorism - Resolution

21/09/2001 GC(45)/RES/18 Application of IAEA safeguards in the Middle East - Resolution

31/07/2001 S/RES/1365 (2001) UNIFIL mandate/Air, sea, land violations - SecCo resolution

25/07/2001 E/RES/2001/19

E/2001/INF/2/Add.2 Situation in the OPT/Repercussions of occupation on living conditions - Resolution

24/07/2001 E/RES/2001/2

E/2001/INF/2/Add.2 Palestinian women/Assistance - ECOSOC resolution

14/06/2001 A/RES/55/180 B UNIFIL/Financing - Resolution

14/06/2001 A/RES/55/264 UNDOF/Financing - Resolution

30/05/2001 S/RES/1351 (2001) UNDOF - Parties to implement S/RES/338 (1973)/ Mandate extended - SecCo resolution

18/04/2001 E/CN.4/RES/2001/10 Human rights of Lebanese detainees in Israel - CHR resolution

18/04/2001 E/CN.4/RES/2001/6 Human rights situation in the occupied Syrian Golan - CHR resolution

18/04/2001 E/CN.4/RES/2001/7 Human rights situation in the OPT - CHR resolution

18/04/2001 E/CN.4/RES/2001/8 Israeli settlements - CHR resolution

06/04/2001 E/CN.4/RES/2001/2 Human rights situation in the OPT - CHR resolution

16/02/2001 HS/C/RES/18/12

A/56/8 Commission on Human Settlements - Resolution

30/01/2001 S/RES/1337 (2001) UNIFIL - SecCo resolution

31/12/2000 A/AC.183/L.2/Add.22 Palestine question/Mideast situation - Compilation of resolutions and decisions adopted in 2000

21/12/2000 A/55/716

S/2000/1236 Mideast situation/Palestine question - Documents of the 9th Islamic Summit Conference session - Letter from Qatar (excerpts)

20/12/2000 A/RES/55/209 Sovereignty over natural resources in the OT - GA resolution

19/12/2000 A/RES/55/180 UNIFIL/Financing - Resolution

14/12/2000 A/RES/55/173 Assistance to the Palestinian people - GA resolution

12/12/2000 A/RES/55/9 Cooperation between UN and OIC - GA resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/123 Palestine refugees/UNRWA/UNCCP - Assistance - GA Resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/124 Palestine refugees - UNRWA financing - GA resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/125 Palestine refugees/Displaced persons - GA resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/126 Palestine refugees - Higher education - GA resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/127 Palestine refugees - UNRWA operations - GA resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/128 Palestine refugees - Refugees' properties - GA Resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/129 Palestine refugees - Al Quds University - GA Resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/130 Israeli practices in the OPT/Work of SpCttee - GA resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/131 Israeli practices/Fourth Geneva Convention - GA resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/132 Israeli practices/Settlements in the OT - GA resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/133 Israeli practices in the OPT/Human rights - GA resolution

08/12/2000 A/RES/55/134 Israeli practices/Golan - GA resolution

04/12/2000 A/RES/55/87 Right of the Palestinian people to self-determination - GA resolution

01/12/2000 A/RES/55/50 Mideast situation/Jerusalem - GA resolution

01/12/2000 A/RES/55/51 Mideast situation/Golan - GA resolution

01/12/2000 A/RES/55/52 Palestine question/CEIRPP - GA resolution

01/12/2000 A/RES/55/53 Palestine question/DPR - GA resolution

01/12/2000 A/RES/55/54 Palestine question/DPI - GA resolution

01/12/2000 A/RES/55/55 Palestine question/Peaceful settlement - GA resolution

27/11/2000 S/RES/1328 (2000) UNDOF - Parties to implement S/RES/338 (1973)/Mandate extended - SecCo resolution

20/11/2000 A/RES/55/30 Nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Mideast - GA resolution

20/11/2000 A/RES/55/36 Nuclear proliferation in the Middle East - GA resolution

20/11/2000 A/RES/55/38 Security and Cooperation in the Mediterranean region - GA resolution

07/11/2000 A/RES/55/18 Bethlehem 2000 - GA resolution

31/10/2000 S/RES/1325 (2000) Women and armed conflict - SecCo resolution 1325 (2000)

20/10/2000 A/RES/ES-10/7 Jerusalem/Settlements - GA emergency session - Resolution

19/10/2000 E/CN.4/RES/S-5/1 Human rights inquiry commission to be established - CHR resolution

19/10/2000 E/CN.4/S-5/5

E/2000/112 Human rights situation/Palestine question - CHR special session report, draft decision, resolution

07/10/2000 S/RES/1322 (2000) Mideast situation, incl. Palestinian question - Excessive use of force against Palestinians condemned/ Israel to abide by Fourth Geneva Convention/ Inquiry efforts welcomed - SecCo resolution

22/09/2000 GC(44)/RES/28 Application of IAEA safeguards in the Middle East - Resolution

28/07/2000 E/RES/2000/23

E/2000/INF/2/Add.2 Palestinian women - ECOSOC resolution

28/07/2000 E/RES/2000/31

E/2000/INF/2/Add.2 Situation in the OPT/Repercussions of occupation on living conditions - Resolution

27/07/2000 S/RES/1310 (2000) UNIFIL - SecCo extends mandate - SecCo resolution

17/07/2000 S/RES/1308 (2000) UNDOF - Impact of HIV/AIDS on peacekeeping personnel - SecCo resolution

15/06/2000 A/RES/54/266 UNDOF/Financing - Resolution

15/06/2000 A/RES/54/267 UNIFIL/Financing - Resolution

31/05/2000 S/RES/1300 (2000) UNDOF - Parties to implement S/RES/338 (1973)/Mandate extended - SecCo resolution

19/04/2000 S/RES/1296 (2000) Protection of civilians in armed conflict - SecCo resolution

18/04/2000 E/CN.4/RES/2000/16 Human rights situation in southern Lebanon/west Bekaa - CHR resolution

17/04/2000 E/CN.4/RES/2000/6 Human rights situation in the OPT - CHR resolution

17/04/2000 E/CN.4/RES/2000/7 Human rights situation in the occupied Syrian Golan - CHR resolution

17/04/2000 E/CN.4/RES/2000/8 Israeli settlements - CHR resolution

07/04/2000 E/CN.4/RES/2000/4 Human rights situation in the OPT - CHR resolution

31/01/2000 S/RES/1288 (2000) UNIFIL - SecCo extends mandate - SecCo resolution

31/12/1999 A/AC.183/L.2/Add.21 Palestine question/Mideast situation - Compilation of resolutions and decisions adopted in 1999

22/12/1999 A/RES/54/230 Sovereignty over natural resources in the OT - GA resolution

17/12/1999 A/RES/54/152 Right of the Palestinian people to self-determination - GA resolution

15/12/1999 A/RES/54/116 Assistance to the Palestinian people - GA resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/69 Palestine refugees/UNRWA/UNCCP - Assistance - GA Resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/70 Palestine refugees - UNRWA financing - GA resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/71 Palestine refugees - Displaced persons - GA resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/72 Palestine refugees - Higher education - GA resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/73 Palestine refugees - UNRWA operations - GA resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/74 Palestine refugees - Refugees' properties - GA Resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/75 Palestine refugees - Al Quds University - GA Resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/76 Israeli practices in the OPT- GA resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/77 Israeli practices/Fourth Geneva convention - GA resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/78 Israeli practices/Settlements in the OT - GA resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/79 Israeli practices - GA resolution

06/12/1999 A/RES/54/80 Israeli practices/Golan - GA resolution

01/12/1999 A/RES/54/37 Mideast situation/Jerusalem - GA resolution

01/12/1999 A/RES/54/38 Mideast situation/Golan - GA resolution

01/12/1999 A/RES/54/39 Palestine question/CEIRPP - GA resolution

01/12/1999 A/RES/54/40 Palestine question/DPR - GA resolution

01/12/1999 A/RES/54/41 Palestine question/DPI - GA resolution

01/12/1999 A/RES/54/42 Palestine question/Peaceful settlement - GA resolution

01/12/1999 A/RES/54/51 Nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Mideast - GA resolution

01/12/1999 A/RES/54/57 Nuclear proliferation in the Middle East - GA resolution

01/12/1999 A/RES/54/59 Security and Cooperation in the Mediterranean region - GA resolution

24/11/1999 S/RES/1276 (1999) UNDOF - Parties to implement S/RES/338 (1973)/Mandate extended - SecCo resolution

10/11/1999 A/RES/54/22 Bethlehem 2000 - GA resolution

01/10/1999 A/54/430 Protection of children affected by armed conflict

01/10/1999 GC(43)/RES/23 Application of IAEA safeguards in the Middle East - Resolution

17/09/1999 S/RES/1265 (1999) Protection of civilians/Preventive military and civilian deployments - SecCo resolution

30/07/1999 S/RES/1254 (1999) UNIFIL - SecCo resolution

29/07/1999 E/RES/1999/53 Repercussions of occupation on living conditions - Resolution

28/07/1999 E/RES/1999/15 Palestinian women - ECOSOC resolution

08/06/1999 A/RES/53/226 UNDOF/Financing - Resolution

08/06/1999 A/RES/53/227 UNIFIL/Financing - Resolution

27/05/1999 S/RES/1243 (1999) UNDOF - Parties to implement S/RES/338 (1973)/Mandate extended - SecCo resolution

14/05/1999 HS/C/RES/17/9

A/54/8 Commission on Human Settlements - Resolution

27/04/1999 E/CN.4/RES/1999/55 Human rights situation in the OPT - CHR resolution

23/04/1999 E/CN.4/RES/1999/12 Human rights situation in southern Lebanon/west Bekaa - CHR resolution

23/04/1999 E/CN.4/RES/1999/5 Human rights situation in the OPT - CHR resolution

23/04/1999 E/CN.4/RES/1999/6 Human rights situation in the OT/Golan - CHR resolution

23/04/1999 E/CN.4/RES/1999/7 Israeli settlements - CHR resolution

09/02/1999 A/RES/ES-10/6 Jerusalem/Settlements - GA emergency session - Resolution

28/01/1999 S/RES/1223 (1999) UNIFIL - SecCo resolution

28/01/1999 S/RES/1223 (2000) UNIFIL - SecCo extends mandate - SecCo resolution

31/12/1998 A/AC.183/L.2/Add.20 Palestine question/Mideast situation - Compilation of resolutions and decisions adopted in 1998

15/12/1998 A/RES/53/196 Sovereignty over natural resources in the OT - GA resolution

09/12/1998 A/RES/36/98 Israeli nuclear armament - GA resolution

09/12/1998 A/RES/53/136 Right of the Palestinian people to self-determination - GA resolution

07/12/1998 A/RES/53/89 Assistance to the Palestinian people - GA resolution

04/12/1998 A/RES/53/74 Nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Mideast - GA resolution

04/12/1998 A/RES/53/80 Nuclear proliferation in the Middle East - GA resolution

04/12/1998 A/RES/53/82 Security and Cooperation in the Mediterranean region - GA resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/46 Palestine refugees/UNRWA mandate/UNCCP - Assistance - GA Resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/47 Palestine refugees - UNRWA financing - GA resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/48 Palestine refugees - Displaced persons - GA resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/49 Palestine refugees - Higher education - GA resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/50 Palestine refugees - UNRWA operations - GA resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/51 Palestine refugees - Refugees' properties - GA Resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/52 Palestine refugees - Al Quds University - GA Resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/53 Israeli practices/Work of the SpCttee - GA resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/54 Israeli practices/Fourth Geneva Convention - GA resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/55 Israeli practices/Settlements - GA resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/56 Israeli practices/Human rights - GA resolution

03/12/1998 A/RES/53/57 Israeli practices/Golan - GA resolution

02/12/1998 A/RES/53/37 Mideast situation/Jerusalem - GA resolution

02/12/1998 A/RES/53/38 Mideast situation/Golan - GA resolution

02/12/1998 A/RES/53/39 Palestine question/CEIRPP - GA resolution

02/12/1998 A/RES/53/40 Palestine question/DPR - GA resolution

02/12/1998 A/RES/53/41 Palestine question/DPI - GA resolution

02/12/1998 A/RES/53/42 Palestine question/Peaceful settlement - GA resolution

Without going into the details of these resolutions here, it may suffice to quote the full text of one in particular. Toward the end of the year 2002 the U.N. General Assembly passed Resolution 57/111 on Jerusalem, which states that "the international community, through the United Nations, has a legitimate interest in the question of the City of Jerusalem" and that "any actions taken by Israel to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration on the Holy City of Jerusalem are illegal and therefore null and void and have no validity whatsoever." Here is the text of that resolution, as copied from the U.N. web site:


57/111. Jerusalem

The General Assembly,

Recalling its resolution 181 (II) of 29 November 1947, in particular its provisions regarding the City of Jerusalem,

Recalling also its resolution 36/120 E of 10 December 1981 and all subsequent resolutions, including resolution 56/31 of 3 December 2001, in which it, inter alia, determined that all legislative and administrative measures and actions taken by Israel, the occupying Power, which have altered or purported to alter the character and status of the Holy City of Jerusalem, in particular the so-called "Basic Law" on Jerusalem and the proclamation of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, were null and void and must be rescinded forthwith,

Recalling further Security Council resolutions relevant to Jerusalem, including resolution 478 (1980) of 20 August 1980, in which the Council, inter alia, decided not to recognize the "Basic Law" and called upon those States which had established diplomatic missions in Jerusalem to withdraw such missions from the Holy City,

Expressing its grave concern at any action taken by any body, governmental or non-governmental, in violation of the above-mentioned resolutions,

Reaffirming that the international community, through the United Nations, has a legitimate interest in the question of the City of Jerusalem and the protection of the unique spiritual and religious dimension of the city, as foreseen in relevant United Nations resolutions on this matter,

Having considered the report of the Secretary-General,12

1. Reiterates its determination that any actions taken by Israel to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration on the Holy City of Jerusalem are illegal and therefore null and void and have no validity whatsoever;

2. Deplores the transfer by some States of their diplomatic missions to Jerusalem in violation of Security Council resolution 478 (1980), and calls once more upon those States to abide by the provisions of the relevant United Nations resolutions, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations;

3. Stresses that a comprehensive, just and lasting solution to the question of the City of Jerusalem should take into account the legitimate concerns of both the Palestinian and Israeli sides and should include internationally guaranteed provisions to ensure the freedom of religion and of conscience of its inhabitants, as well as permanent, free and unhindered access to the holy places by the people of all religions and nationalities;

4. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly at its fifty-eighth session on the implementation of the present resolution.


66th plenary meeting
3 December 2002

RECORDED VOTE ON RESOLUTION 57/111: 154-5-6

In favour : Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Against : Costa Rica, Israel, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), United States of America

Abstaining : Albania, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu , Vanuatu


Besides passing resolutions, the United Nations organization has also been heavily involved in the peace process, especially in connection with the so-called "roadmap" for peace, sponsored jointly by the United States, the United Nations, Russia and the European Union.

The previous phase of the peace process broke down when discussions reached the stage of determining the status of Jerusalem. That resulted in renewed conflict between Israel and the Palestinians. Now with the rest of the world and the United Nations organization involved this time through the "roadmap," if the peace process breaks down again over Jerusalem, this could have consequences that are more far reaching. If progress continues to the point of an actual peace on the ground with some sort of international peacekeeper presence to enforce that peace in and around Jerusalem, a breakdown and renewal of hostilities at that point good fit the title of this book, with blue helmets coming into conflict at Jerusalem.

Here is the text of that "roadmap for peace," as posted on the official U.N. website at http://www.UN.org/media/main/roadmap122002.html Note how the final phase of the roadmap calls for international involvement in determining the ultimate status of Jerusalem.


a Performance-Based Roadmap

to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

The following is a performance-based and goal-driven roadmap, with clear phases, timelines, target dates, and benchmarks aiming at progress through reciprocal steps by the two parties in the political, security, economic, humanitarian, and institution-building fields, under the auspices of the Quartet. The destination is a final and comprehensive settlement of the Israel-Palestinian conflict by 2005, as presented in President Bushís speech of 24 June, and welcomed by the EU, Russia and the UN in the 16 July and 17 September Quartet Ministerial statements.

A two state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict will only be achieved through an end to violence and terrorism, when the Palestinian people have a leadership acting decisively against terror and willing and able to build a practicing democracy based on tolerance and liberty, and through Israelís readiness to do what is necessary for a democratic Palestinian state to be established, and a clear, unambiguous acceptance by both parties of the goal of a negotiated settlement as described below. The Quartet will assist and facilitate implementation of the plan, starting in Phase I, including direct discussions between the parties as required. The plan establishes a realistic timeline for implementation. However, as a performance-based plan, progress will require and depend upon the good faith efforts of the parties, and their compliance with each of the obligations outlined below. Should the parties perform their obligations rapidly, progress within and through the phases may come sooner than indicated in the plan. Non-compliance with obligations will impede progress.

A settlement, negotiated between the parties, will result in the emergence of an independent, democratic, and viable Palestinian state living side by side in peace and security with Israel and its other neighbors. The settlement will resolve the Israel-Palestinian conflict, and end the occupation that began in 1967, based on the foundations of the Madrid Conference, the principle of land for peace, UNSCRs 242, 338 and 1397, agreements previously reached by the parties, and the initiative of Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah - endorsed by the Beirut Arab League Summit - calling for acceptance of Israel as a neighbor living in peace and security, in the context of a comprehensive settlement. This initiative is a vital element of international efforts to promote a comprehensive peace on all tracks, including the Syrian-Israeli and Lebanese-Israeli tracks.

The Quartet will meet regularly at senior levels to evaluate the parties' performance on implementation of the plan. In each phase, the parties are expected to perform their obligations in parallel, unless otherwise indicated.

Phase I:

Ending Terror And Violence, Normalizing Palestinian Life,

and Building Palestinian Institutions

Present to May 2003

In Phase I, the Palestinians immediately undertake an unconditional cessation of violence according to the steps outlined below; such action should be accompanied by supportive measures undertaken by Israel. Palestinians and Israelis resume security cooperation based on the Tenet work plan to end violence, terrorism, and incitement through restructured and effective Palestinian security services. Palestinians undertake comprehensive political reform in preparation for statehood, including drafting a Palestinian constitution, and free, fair and open elections upon the basis of those measures. Israel takes all necessary steps to help normalize Palestinian life. Israel withdraws from Palestinian areas occupied from September 28, 2000 and the two sides restore the status quo that existed at that time, as security performance and cooperation progress. Israel also freezes all settlement activity, consistent with the Mitchell report.

At the outset of Phase I:

Palestinian leadership issues unequivocal statement reiterating Israelís right to exist in peace and security and calling for an immediate and unconditional ceasefire to end armed activity and all acts of violence against Israelis anywhere. All official Palestinian institutions end incitement against Israel.

Israeli leadership issues unequivocal statement affirming its commitment to the two-state vision of an independent, viable, sovereign Palestinian state living in peace and security alongside Israel, as expressed by President Bush, and calling for an immediate end to violence against Palestinians everywhere. All official Israeli institutions end incitement against Palestinians.

Security

∑ Palestinians declare an unequivocal end to violence and terrorism and undertake visible efforts on the ground to arrest, disrupt, and restrain individuals and groups conducting and planning violent attacks on Israelis anywhere.

∑ Rebuilt and refocused Palestinian Authority security apparatus begins sustained, targeted, and effective operations aimed at confronting all those engaged in terror and dismantlement of terrorist capabilities and infrastructure. This includes commencing confiscation of illegal weapons and consolidation of security authority, free of association with terror and corruption.

∑ GOI takes no actions undermining trust, including deportations, attacks on civilians; confiscation and/or demolition of Palestinian homes and property, as a punitive measure or to facilitate Israeli construction; destruction of Palestinian institutions and infrastructure; and other measures specified in the Tenet work plan.

∑ Relying on existing mechanisms and on-the-ground resources, Quartet representatives begin informal monitoring and consult with the parties on establishment of a formal monitoring mechanism and its implementation.

∑ Implementation, as previously agreed, of U.S. rebuilding, training and resumed security cooperation plan in collaboration with outside oversight board (U.S.-Egypt-Jordan). Quartet support for efforts to achieve a lasting, comprehensive cease-fire.

Ø All Palestinian security organizations are consolidated into three services reporting to an empowered Interior Minister.

Ø Restructured/retrained Palestinian security forces and IDF counterparts progressively resume security cooperation and other undertakings in implementation of the Tenet work plan, including regular senior-level meetings, with the participation of U.S. security officials.

∑ Arab states cut off public and private funding and all other forms of support for groups supporting and engaging in violence and terror.

∑ All donors providing budgetary support for the Palestinians channel these funds through the Palestinian Ministry of Finance's Single Treasury Account.

∑ As comprehensive security performance moves forward, IDF withdraws progressively from areas occupied since September 28, 2000 and the two sides restore the status quo that existed prior to September 28, 2000. Palestinian security forces redeploy to areas vacated by IDF.

Palestinian Institution-Building

∑ Immediate action on credible process to produce draft constitution for Palestinian statehood. As rapidly as possible, constitutional committee circulates draft Palestinian constitution, based on strong parliamentary democracy and cabinet with empowered prime minister, for public comment/debate. Constitutional committee proposes draft document for submission after elections for approval by appropriate Palestinian institutions.

∑ Appointment of interim prime minister or cabinet with empowered executive authority/decision-making body.

∑ GOI fully facilitates travel of Palestinian officials for PLC and Cabinet sessions, internationally supervised security retraining, electoral and other reform activity, and other supportive measures related to the reform efforts.

∑ Continued appointment of Palestinian ministers empowered to undertake fundamental reform. Completion of further steps to achieve genuine separation of powers, including any necessary Palestinian legal reforms for this purpose.

∑ Establishment of independent Palestinian election commission. PLC reviews and revises election law.

∑ Palestinian performance on judicial, administrative, and economic benchmarks, as established by the International Task Force on Palestinian Reform.

∑ As early as possible, and based upon the above measures and in the context of open debate and transparent candidate selection/electoral campaign based on a free, multi-party process, Palestinians hold free, open, and fair elections.

∑ GOI facilitates Task Force election assistance, registration of voters, movement of candidates and voting officials. Support for NGOs involved in the election process.

∑ GOI reopens Palestinian Chamber of Commerce and other closed Palestinian institutions in East Jerusalem based on a commitment that these institutions operate strictly in accordance with prior agreements between the parties.

Humanitarian Response

∑ Israel takes measures to improve the humanitarian situation. Israel and Palestinians implement in full all recommendations of the Bertini report to improve humanitarian conditions, lifting curfews and easing restrictions on movement of persons and goods, and allowing full, safe, and unfettered access of international and humanitarian personnel.

∑ AHLC reviews the humanitarian situation and prospects for economic development in the West Bank and Gaza and launches a major donor assistance effort, including to the reform effort.

∑ GOI and PA continue revenue clearance process and transfer of funds, including arrears, in accordance with agreed, transparent monitoring mechanism.

Civil Society

∑ Continued donor support, including increased funding through PVOs/NGOs, for people to people programs, private sector development and civil society initiatives.

Settlements

∑ GOI immediately dismantles settlement outposts erected since March 2001.

∑ Consistent with the Mitchell Report, GOI freezes all settlement activity (including natural growth of settlements).

Phase II: Transition

June 2003-December 2003

In the second phase, efforts are focused on the option of creating an independent Palestinian state with provisional borders and attributes of sovereignty, based on the new constitution, as a way station to a permanent status settlement. As has been noted, this goal can be achieved when the Palestinian people have a leadership acting decisively against terror, willing and able to build a practicing democracy based on tolerance and liberty. With such a leadership, reformed civil institutions and security structures, the Palestinians will have the active support of the Quartet and the broader international community in establishing an independent, viable, state.

Progress into Phase II will be based upon the consensus judgment of the Quartet of whether conditions are appropriate to proceed, taking into account performance of both parties. Furthering and sustaining efforts to normalize Palestinian lives and build Palestinian institutions, Phase II starts after Palestinian elections and ends with possible creation of an independent Palestinian state with provisional borders in 2003. Its primary goals are continued comprehensive security performance and effective security cooperation, continued normalization of Palestinian life and institution-building, further building on and sustaining of the goals outlined in Phase I, ratification of a democratic Palestinian constitution, formal establishment of office of prime minister, consolidation of political reform, and the creation of a Palestinian state with provisional borders.

∑ International Conference: Convened by the Quartet, in consultation with the parties, immediately after the successful conclusion of Palestinian elections, to support Palestinian economic recovery and launch a process, leading to establishment of an independent Palestinian state with provisional borders.

Ø Such a meeting would be inclusive, based on the goal of a comprehensive Middle East peace (including between Israel and Syria, and Israel and Lebanon), and based on the principles described in the preamble to this document.

Ø Arab states restore pre-intifada links to Israel (trade offices, etc.).

Ø Revival of multilateral engagement on issues including regional water resources, environment, economic development, refugees, and arms control issues.

∑ New constitution for democratic, independent Palestinian state is finalized and approved by appropriate Palestinian institutions. Further elections, if required, should follow approval of the new constitution.

∑ Empowered reform cabinet with office of prime minister formally established, consistent with draft constitution.

∑ Continued comprehensive security performance, including effective security cooperation on the bases laid out in Phase I.

∑ Creation of an independent Palestinian state with provisional borders through a process of Israeli-Palestinian engagement, launched by the international conference. As part of this process, implementation of prior agreements, to enhance maximum territorial contiguity, including further action on settlements in conjunction with establishment of a Palestinian state with provisional borders.

∑ Enhanced international role in monitoring transition, with the active, sustained, and operational support of the Quartet.

∑ Quartet members promote international recognition of Palestinian state, including possible UN membership.

Phase III:

Permanent Status Agreement

and End of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

2004 - 2005

Progress into Phase III, based on consensus judgment of Quartet, and taking into account actions of both parties and Quartet monitoring. Phase III objectives are consolidation of reform and stabilization of Palestinian institutions, sustained, effective Palestinian security performance, and Israeli-Palestinian negotiations aimed at a permanent status agreement in 2005.

∑ Second International Conference: Convened by Quartet, in consultation with the parties, at beginning of 2004 to endorse agreement reached on an independent Palestinian state with provisional borders and formally to launch a process with the active, sustained, and operational support of the Quartet, leading to a final, permanent status resolution in 2005, including on borders, Jerusalem, refugees, settlements; and, to support progress toward a comprehensive Middle East settlement between Israel and Lebanon and Israel and Syria, to be achieved as soon as possible.

∑ Continued comprehensive, effective progress on the reform agenda laid out by the Task Force in preparation for final status agreement.

∑ Continued sustained and effective security performance, and sustained, effective security cooperation on the bases laid out in Phase I.

∑ International efforts to facilitate reform and stabilize Palestinian institutions and the Palestinian economy, in preparation for final status agreement.

∑ Parties reach final and comprehensive permanent status agreement that ends the Israel-Palestinian conflict in 2005, through a settlement negotiated between the parties based on UNSCR 242, 338, and 1397, that ends the occupation that began in 1967, and includes an agreed, just, fair, and realistic solution to the refugee issue, and a negotiated resolution on the status of Jerusalem that takes into account the political and religious concerns of both sides, and protects the religious interests of Jews, Christians, and Muslims worldwide, and fulfills the vision of two states, Israel and sovereign, independent, democratic and viable Palestine, living side-by-side in peace and security.

∑ Arab state acceptance of full normal relations with Israel and security for all the states of the region in the context of a comprehensive Arab-Israeli peace.


Note that the status of Jerusalem is to be addressed during the final phase of the roadmap, under the guidance of an "International Conference." The roadmap calls for "a negotiated resolution on the status of Jerusalem that takes into account the political and religious concerns of both sides, and protects the religious interests of Jews, Christians, and Muslims worldwide."

As of this writing the roadmap has already faced many obstacles, with violence continuing while Israel and the Palestinian Authority both hold back from fulfilling obligations spelled out in the agreement. To what extent there will be further breakdowns along the road, delaying the full implementation of the roadmap to peace, remains to be seen. It also remains to be seen whether this latest peace process involving the United Nations will end up fulfilling the biblical prophecies discussed in this book.

The maneuvering leading up to Armageddon could be brief, or it could last several years. But it is clear from the U.N. documents presented earlier in this book and above in this chapter that the nations of the world are already united and resolved in their determination to impose their will on Jerusalem — just as the Bible predicted.



PREVIOUS . . . . . . . . . . HOME . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . NEXT

Copyright © 2003 by David A. Reed, all rights reserved